Traumatic Brain Injury (“TBI”)

What is a Traumatic Brain Injury?


A TBI or Traumatic Brain Injury is a brain dysfunction, which is caused by an impact to the head or when any physical occurrence causes damage to the brain. They can also be called brain injuries or concussions. For a TBI to occur there must be a mechanism of injury. It is not a disease or disorder that simply arises. There is not a genetic or biological marker for developing a TBI. However, individuals that are more active, involved in high impact or dangerous activities are at a greater risk for injury. Males below the age of thirty are considered to be at the higher risk of getting a brain injury. TBI’s can be mild, moderate or severe. Concussions are a common term for a mild TBI.

TBI occurrences:

In 2010, it was reported that 2.5 million people went to an ER due to a TBI. Additionally, it is believed that most mild TBIs occur without proper recognition and do not receive treatment. There has been a growth in education over the past few years and health care providers hope that recognition is increasing. The rates for TBIs diagnosis are increasing; from 2001 to 2009 they rose by 57% for adolescents. However, it is unclear whether that is due to better education or higher rates of occurrence. Furthermore, those with TBIs have an increased likelihood of having an additional mental health disorder and substance abuse issues. The lasting effects of a TBI add to the possibility of other psychological issues such as anxiety, depression, PTSD, personality disorders and substance abuse. Many individuals with a TBI need additional treatment and counseling for the behavioral issues that arise secondary to the injury. To learn more about depression, anxiety and treatment options click here. (Link to those pages)

Symptoms of a TBI:

Once a TBI occurs, the damage to the brain has been done and cannot be reversed though there are therapies, treatments and neuro rehab, which can help. Immediately after injury, a person will need to be stabilized and then can be evaluated for severity of the injury. There are initial post accident symptoms and there are long term consequences of a brain injury. The initial symptoms can include loss of consciousness, confusion or amnesia, headaches, vomiting, seizures or convulsion and issues with hearing, smell and sight. The severity or presence of these symptoms can vary greatly.

Oppositional Defiance DisorderLong term issues associated with TBI’s:

It is only in more recent years that the long term symptoms of TBI’s have begun to be recognized.

These issues can occur regardless of severity. It is also being discovered that repeated mild TBIs, often called concussions, over time, can be incredibly damaging and lead to severe lifelong issues. This is especially true when the concussions begin during childhood. TBI’s lifelong effects can include:

  • Cognitive problems – thinking, memory, attention, reasoning
  • Sensory processing problems – the five senses
  • Communication issues – understanding and expressing
  • Behavioral issues – depression, anxiety, aggression, impulsivity, inappropriateness, acting out
  • Increased inability for risk management, poor judgment, inability to follow directions
  • Increased anger, frustration, impatience

Parenting a child with a Traumatic Brain Injury

From a parental point of view, the long term symptoms can be incredibly hard to understand and manage. For many people, it can seem that their loved one has been replaced by someone else, but for others the effects can be more subtle but no less damaging. There might be slight personality changes, your son or daughter seems more reserved or withdrawn, he or she makes poor decisions in certain situations or is more easily frustrated and quick to anger. It can be hard to tell where the effects of a brain injury end and a person’s own behavior begins. However, these consequences pose a huge risk for your child.

If you are struggling with a child who has behavioral issues due to a TBI and are looking for counseling and treatment in the Denver or Boulder, Colorado areas, Sandstone Care can help.  Contact Us for more information.

Secondary behavioral issue for those with TBIs

With the decreases in decision making ability and risk aversion that are the some of the hallmarks of a TBI, poor choices and thrill seeking through substance use are very common. Additionally many TBI sufferers have accompanying pain due to their injury, which can also open a path to substance abuse. Most individuals who are treated for a TBI will be prescribed some sort of pain medication. It is important for both the patient and their parents to understand the risks for addiction that these medication pose. If a dependence or addiction to the medication or a secondary substance does occur, finding a substance abuse treatment facility is key for recovery. If you believe your child is addicted to a substance, we are a drug treatment center for teens in the Denver area that can help your child begin the recovery process.

Teenagers are already vulnerability and can struggle with making safe decisions, a TBI can further degrade their ability to be safe and healthy.  TBI sufferers also struggle with depression and anxiety both of, which increase the possibility of substance abuse. For parents and for those that have a TBI, understanding the increased risk for these secondary disorders is essential. By educating and preparing yourself and your loved ones, potential problems can possibly avoided or warning signs of changes in behavior, addiction or other pitfalls can be recognized. As a drug treatment facility in the Denver, Broomfield and Boulder areas that additionally provides counseling for depression and anxiety we can provide the support and help you and your teenager. 

Further Reading

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